How to Control Shutter and Aperture, and Why?

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Together, the shutter speed & aperture control the exposure of an image. But what do these two assets of image construction really do?

The same thing. They both control how much light will reach the film (or digital sensor), but they do it very differently.

Think of a water faucet filling a one gallon bucket. To achieve this, you could fill the bucket fast by opening the valve to full. Or, you could fill the bucket, drop by drop, over a long period of time by only opening the valve slightly.